A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and a preposition, a verb and an adverb, or a verb with both an adverb and a preposition, any of which are part of the syntax of the sentence, and so are a complete semantic unit. Sentences may contain direct and indirect objects in addition to the phrasal verb. Phrasal verbs are particularly frequent in the English language. A phrasal verb often has a meaning which is different from the original verb.
According to Tom McArthur:
Alternative terms for phrasal verb are ‘compound verb’, ‘verb-adverb combination’, ‘verb-particle construction (VPC)’, AmE ‘two-part word/verb’ and ‘three-part word/verb’ (depending on the number of particles), and multi-word verb (MWV).
Prepositions and adverbs used in a phrasal verb are also called particles in that they do not alter their form through inflections (are therefore uninflected: they do not accept affixes, etc.). Because of the idiomatic nature of phrasal verbs, they are often subject to preposition stranding.
Phrasal verbs are usually used informally in everyday speech as opposed to the more formal Latinate verbs, such as “to get together” rather than “to congregate”, “to put off” rather than “to postpone”, or “to get out” rather than “to exit”.
Some phrasal verbs take an object (transitive); other do not take an object (intransitive).
- The plumber soon sorted out the shower problem (with object)
- The path branched off to the river ( no object)
Many verbs in English can be combined with an adverb or a preposition, and readers or listeners will easily understand a phrasal verb used in a literal sense with a preposition:
- "He walked across the square."
- "She opened the shutters and looked outside."
- "When he heard the crash, he looked up."
It is, however, the figurative or idiomatic application in everyday speech which makes phrasal verbs so important:
- "I hope you will get over your operation quickly."
- "Work hard, and get your examination over with."
The literal meaning of “to get over”, in the sense of “to climb over something to get to the other side”, no longer applies to explain the subject's enduring an operation or the stress of an examination which they have to overcome. It is when the combined meaning of verb plus adverb, or verb plus preposition is totally different from each of its component parts, that the semantic content of the phrasal verb cannot be predicted by its constituent parts and so becomes much more difficult for a student learning English to recognise. Attempts have been made, however, to identify some system in the way that a given particle contributes to the meaning of a phrasal verb, and it seems likely that an understanding of conceptual metaphor may be helpful here. As Lakoff and Johnson show, most particles have, initially, a literal meaning which is spatial or "orientational", and then metaphorical meanings attach to them in ways that are (fairly) systematic (see also Knowles & Moon 2006: 17). One phrasal verbs dictionary for learners of English, Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus, provides annotated charts for 12 of the most common particles used in phrasal verbs, tracing the way they develop non-literal uses on the basis of conceptual metaphor, and showing how the "meaning" of each particle in a phrasal verb is, to some degree at least, predictable.
In her introduction to "Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs, What this dictionary contains", Rosemary Courtney includes as a third category
Courtney then cites among many other examples in the dictionary such phrases as "to add insult to injury", "to add fuel to the flames", "to leave someone in the lurch", "to scare someone out of their wits", etc.3. Idioms which are formed from phrasal verbs, such as let the cat out of the bag. These idioms are printed in heavy type. Idioms have a meaning which is different from the meaning of the single words, and usually have a fixed word order.
A phrasal verb contains either a preposition or an adverb (or both), and may also combine with one or more nouns or pronouns.
Phrasal verbs that contain a particle such as up (in some traditions called an adverb, in others a preposition) are called "particle verbs", and are related to separable verbs in other Germanic languages. There are two main patterns: intransitive and transitive. An intransitive particle verb does not have an object:
- “When I entered the room he looked up.”
A transitive particle verb has a nominal object in addition to the particle. If the object is an ordinary noun phrase, it can usually appear on either side of the particle, although very long noun phrases tend to come after the particle:
- Switch off the light.
- Switch the light off.
- Switch off the lights in the hallway next to the bedroom in which the president is sleeping.
With some transitive particle verbs, however, the noun phrase object must come after the preposition. Such examples are said to involve "inseparable" phrasal verbs:
- The gas gave off fumes. (not *The gas gave fumes off.)
- I cannot tell the Beatles apart. (not *I cannot tell apart the Beatles.)
- I cannot tell the various members of the band called the Beatles apart.
With all transitive particle verbs, if the object is a pronoun, it must, with just one type of exception, precede the particle:
- Switch it off. (not *Switch off it.)
- The smell put them off. (not *put off them)
- They let him through. (not *they let through him)
- Figure out THESE, not THOSE.
- to eat the apple (neutral for ‘complete’ result)
- to eat up the apple (greater possibility for ‘complete’ result)
- to eat the apple up (compulsory claim for ‘complete’ result)
- On Fridays, we look after our grandchildren.
- We look after them. (not *look them after)
- She helped the boy to an extra portion of potatoes.
- with pronouns: She helped him to some.
- We talked to the minister about the crisis.
A phrasal verb can contain an adverb and a preposition at the same time. Again, the verb itself can have a direct object:
- no direct object: The driver got off to a flying start.
- direct object: Onlookers put the accident down to the driver’s loss of concentration.
Phrasal nouns consist of a verb combined with a particle. The particle may come before or after the verb.
- standby " we are keeping the old equipment on standby, in case of emergency." (ready to be used if necessary)
- back-up " Neil can provide technical backup if you need it" (support)
- onset " the match was halted by the onset of rain" ( start of something unpleasant)
- input " Try to come to the meeting- we'd value your input" (contribution)
When modifying adverbs are used alongside particle adverbs intransitively (as particle adverbs usually are), the adverbs can appear in any verb/particle/adverb positions:
- “He unhappily looked round.”
- “He looked unhappily round.”
- “He looked round unhappily.”
With a transitive particle verb, the adverb goes either before the verb or after the object or particle, whichever is last:
- “He cheerfully picked the book up.”
- “He picked up the book cheerfully.” (not *picked cheerfully up the book)
- “He picked the book up cheerfully.”
- “He desperately looked for his keys.
- “He looked for his keys desperately.
- “He looked desperately for his keys.
Courtney also includes special verb forms and clauses in phrasal verb constructions.
- Phrasal verbs combined with wh-clauses and that-clauses
- Sentences which include verb + particle + object(s) + wh-clauses
- “The teacher tries to dictate to his class what the right thing to do is”
- = transitive verb + preposition (dictate to) + indirect object (his class) + wh-clause (what the right thing to do is).
- “My friends called for me when the time came”
- = transitive verb + preposition (called for) + pronoun (me) + wh-clause (when the time came).
- “Watch out that you don’t hit your head on the low beam”
- = intransitive verb + adverb (watch out) + that-clause (that you don’t hit your head on the low beam).
- Phrasal verbs combined with verb-ing forms
- “You can’t prevent me from seeing her”
- = transitive verb + pronoun (prevent me) + preposition (from) + verb-ing form (seeing) + pronoun (her).
- ^ Academic Center: English as a Foreign Language Resources
- ^ McArthur, Tom: “The Oxford Companion to the English Language”, pp72-76, Oxford University Press, 1992 ISBN 0-19-2114183-X.
- ^ Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M., Metaphors We Live By, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980: 14-21
- ^ Knowles, M. & Moon, R. Introducing Metaphor, London: Routledge, 2006
- ^ a b Courtney, Rosemary: "Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs", Longman Group Uk Limited, 1989ISBN 0-582-55530-2 CSD, ISBN 0-582-05864-3 PPR
- ^ Cambridge International Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs, Anglais-Français, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998.
- ^ a b Fraser, Bruce, The Verb-Particle Combination in English, Academic Press, 1976.
- ^ Gorlach, Marina, Phrasal Constructions and Resultatives in English, John Benjamins Publ. Co., 2004.
- ^ English phrasal verb in use, Cambridge university press,2007,Michael Mccarthy, Felicity O'dell
- Long, Thomas Hill (Editorial Director), Summers, Della (Managing Editor): "Longman Dictionary of English Idioms", Longman Group Limited, 1979 ISBN 0-582-55524-8
- Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus Dictionary, Oxford: Macmillan Education 2005, ISBN 1-405-06390-4
- Oxford Phrasal Verbs Dictionary. Oxford: OUP. 2001. ISBN 0-19-431543-6.
PHRASAL VERB PAGE by Dennis Oliver
To see definitions and examples for each phrasal verb, select the proper letter below. (For example, choose "A" for "add up.")
Phrasal Verbs: A
act up (no object): misbehave (for people); not work properly (for machines).
act like (inseparable): behave in a way that's like _____ .
add up (1. no object): logically fit together.
add up (2. separable): find the total.
add up to (inseparable): to total.
"The babysitter had a difficult time. The childrenacted up all evening."
"I guess I'd better take my car to the garage. It's been acting up lately."
"What's wrong with Bob? He's acting like an idiot."
Note: This phrasal verb is very informal.
"His theory is hard to believe, but his researchadds up."
Note: This phrasal verb is often negative."His theory seems, at first, to be plausible, but the facts in his research don't add up."
"What's the total of those bills? Could you addthem up and see?"
"The bills add up to $734.96. That's more than I expected!"ask out (separable): ask for a date.
"Nancy has a new boy friend. Joe asked herout last night."
Phrasal Verbs: B
back down (no object): not follow a threat.
back off (no object): not follow a threat.
back up (2. separable): drive a vehicle backwards (in reverse).
back up (3. separable): confirm a story, facts, or information.
back up (4. separable): make a "protection" copy to use if there are problems with the original.
beg off (no object): decline an invitation; ask to be excused from doing something.
blow up (1. separable): inflate.
blow up (2. separable): explode; destroy by exploding.
blow up (3. no object): suddenly become very angry.
bone up on (inseparable): review / study thoroughly for a short time.
break down (1. separable): separate something into component parts.
break down (2. no object): stop working / functioning.
break in (1. often no object; with an object, break into--inseparable): enter by using force (and breaking a lock, window, etc.)
break up (2. usually no object; with an object, breakup with [inseparable)]): end a personal relationship.
bring / take back (separable): return something.
bring off (separable): accomplish something difficult; accomplish something people had considered impossible or unlikely.
bring up (1. separable): mention (as a topic of discussion).
bring up (2. separable): raise; rear.
brush up on (inseparable): review / study thoroughly for a short time.
burn down (no object): become destroyed / consumed by fire.
burn up (1. no object): become destroyed / consumed by fire.
"Tom was going to call the police when I told him I'd wrecked his car, but he backed down when I said I'd pay for the damages."
"Tom was ready to call the police when I told him I'd wrecked his car, but he backed off when I said I'd pay for the damages."back up (1. no object): move backward; move in reverse.
"You missed the lines in the parking space. You'll have to back up and try again."
"The people waiting in line are too close to the door. We won't be able to open it unless they backup."
"You're too close! Back your car up so I can open the garage door."
"If you don't believe me, talk to Dave. He'llback me up."
"When my computer crashed, I lost many of my files. It's a good thing I backed them up."
"At first Lily said she would be at the party. Later she begged off."
"We needs lots of balloons for the party. Will youblow them up?"
A: "That old building really came down quickly!"
B: "That's because the construction company used dynamite to blowit up."
"When I told Jerry that I'd had an accident with his car, he blew up."
"If you're going to travel to Peru, you'd betterbone up on your Spanish."
"We spent a lot of money at the supermarket. When webroke the total cost down, we spent more on cleaning supplies than food."
"Sharon will be late for work today. Her car broke down on the freeway."
"Jane's apartment was burglarized last night. Someonebroke in while Jane was at the movies." / "Somebody broke into Jane's apartment while she was at the movies.break in (2. separable): wear something new until it's / they're comfortable.
"These are nice shoes, but they're too stiff. I hope it doesn't take too long to break them in."break in (3. separable): train; get someone / something accustomed to a new routine.
"I hope I can learn my new job quickly. The manager hasn't scheduled much time for breaking mein."break up (1. no object): disperse; scatter.
"What time did the party break up last night?"
"Tim and Julie aren't going steady any more. They got really angry with each other and broke up."
"Have you heard the news? Julie broke up with Tim!"
"I'm sorry to hear that their marriage broke up. I'm sure the divorce will be difficult for the children."
"Yes, you can borrow my pen, don't forget tobring it back to me when you're finished."
"This book is due tomorrow. I guess I should take itback to the library."
"No one thought Chuck could get an A in that course, but he brought it off. "
"We planned to discuss overtime pay in the meeting. Why didn't someone bring that topic up?"
"Lucy's parents died when she was a baby. Her grandparents brought her up."
"If you're going to travel to Peru, you'd betterbrush up on your Spanish."
Note: For upright things--trees, buildings, etc.--only."Lightning struck Mr. Kennedy's barn last night. It burned down before the fire fighters arrived."
burn up (2. separable): cause someone to become very angry.Note: For people and non-upright things only."All of Mr. Kennedy's hay burned up when his barn burned down."
"Did you hear how rudely Fred talked to me? That really burned me up!"butt in (no object): impolitely interrupt (a conversation, an action).
"Hey, you! Don't butt in! Wait for your turn!"butter up (separable): praise someone excessively with the hope of getting some benefit.
"I guess Marty reall wants to be promoted. He's beenbuttering his boss up all week."
Phrasal Verbs: C
call off (separable): cancel something that has been scheduled.
call on (inseparable): ask someone for an answer in class.
calm down (with or without an object; with an object, separable): become calm / less agitated or upset; help someone become calm / less agitated or upset.
(not) care for (1. inseparable): like; want.
care for (2. inseparable): take care of; supply care to; attend / watch..
catch on (no object): develop understanding or knowledge of something.
catch up (with) (often without an object; with an object, inseparable): stop being behind.
check in(to) (inseparable): register for / at a hotel, conference, etc.; let someone know officially that you have arrived.
check off (separable): make a mark to indicate that something on a list has been completed.
check out (of) (1. inseparable): follow procedures for leaving (a hotel, etc.)
check out (2. separable): follow procedures for borrowing something (usually for a limited period of time).
cheer up (separable): help someone feel less worried / depressed / sad.
chew out (separable): scold someone severely; berate.
chicken out (no object): lose the courage or confidence to do something--often at the last minute.
chip in (inseparable): contribute / donate (often money) to something done by a group.
clam up (inseparable): suddenly become quiet / refuse to talk about something.
come across (inseparable): find (unexpectedly).
come down with _____ (inseparable): become ill with _____ .
come to (1. inseparable): total.
come to (2. no object): regain consciousness.
count on (inseparable): depend on; trust that something will happen or that someone
will do as expected.
cross out (separable): show that something written is wrong or unnecessary by making an X across it.
cut back (on) (often without an object; with an object,cut back on [inseparable]): use less of something.
"We don't have school today. The mayor calledclasses off because of the snow."
"I don't know why the teacher never calls onyou. You always know the answer."
"Why are you so upset? Suzie didn't intend to spill orange juice on you. Calm down!"
"I know Ralph is upset, but can you calm him down? He's making so much noise that he's irritating everyone in the office."
Note: This phrasal verb is usually negative, though it may be used affirmatively in questions.A: "Would you care for something to drink? We have coffee, tea, or orange juice."
B: "Could I have water, please? I don't care for coffee, tea, or juice."
"Amy's father got out of the hospital last week. The family is caring for him at home."
"Bill had never used a computer until he took this class, but he caught on very quickly and is now one of the best students."
"Terry stopped to rest for a few minutes. He'llcatch up / catch up with us later."
"My plane will arrive around 5:00 PM. I should be able to check into the hotel by 6:00 or 6:30."
"When you arrive at the convention, be sure to check in at the registration desk."
"Here are the things you need to do. Pleasecheck each one off when you've finished it."
"Don't forget to take your room key to the front desk when you check out (when you check out ofthe hotel)."
"I'm sorry, but you can't take that encyclopedia home. The library won't allow you to check reference booksout."
"Suzie's brother was depressed about not getting a promotion, so she sent him a funny card tocheer himup."
"Tom's father was really angry when Tom didn't come home until 3:00 AM. He chewed Tom outand then said Tom had to stay at home for two weeks."
"Sam said he was going to ask Lulu for a date, but hechickened out."
"We're going to buy a birthday cake for our boss and I'm collecting donations. Do you want to chip in?"
"Lila wouldn't talk about the accident. When I asked her what happened, she clammed up."
"I've lost my extra car keys. If you come across them while your're
cleaning the room, please put them in a safe place."
"George won't be at the office today. He came downwith the flu over the weekend."
"Your charges come to $124.38. Will you pay by check, in cash, or
with a credit card?"
"When I told Gina that she'd won a million dollars, she fainted. When she
came to, I told her it was a joke and she almost hit me!"
will do as expected.
"I'm counting on you to wake me up tomorrow. I know I won't hear the alarm."
"We can't afford to buy everything on your shopping list, so I've crossed all the unnecessary thingsout."
"You drink too much coffee. You should cutback."
"You should cut back on the amount of coffee that you drink."
Phrasal Verbs: D
do in (1. separable): cause to become very tired.
do in (2. separable): to kill; to murder.
do over (separable): do something again.
drag on (no object): last much longer than expected or is necessary.
draw up (separable): create a formal document.
drop off (separable): deliver something; deliver someone (by giving him/her a ride).
drop in (on) (inseparable): visit informally (and usually usually without scheduling a specific time).
drop by (inseparable): visit informally (and usually without scheduling a specific time).
drop out (of) (inseparable): stop attending / leave school or an organization.
draw out (separable): prolong something (usually far beyond the normal limits).
"Those three games of tennis yesterday afternoon really did me in. I slept for ten hours after I got home."
"The said that the murdered man was done inbetween 10 and 11 o'clock last night."
"Oh, no! I forgot to save my report before I turned the computer off! Now I'll have to do it over!"
"I thought the meeting would be a short one, but itdragged on for more than three hours."
"The Ajax and Tip-Top Banks have decided to merge. Their lawyers will draw all the official documents upsometime this month."
"Yes, I can take those letters to the post office. I'll drop them off as I go home from work."
"You don't have to take a taxi. You live fairly close to me, so I'll be happy to drop you off."
"If you're in town next month, we'd love to see you. Please try to drop in. (Please try to drop in onus."
"If you're in town next month, we'd love to see you. Please try to drop by the house."
"No, Paul isn't at the university. He dropped out. / He dropped out of school."
"I thought that speech would never end. The speaker could have said everything important in about five minutes, but hedrew the speech out for over an hour!"
Phrasal Verbs: E
eat out (no object): have a meal in a restaurant.
egg on (separable): urge / encourage greatly toward doing something (usually something negative).
"I'm too tired to cook tonight. Why don't we eat out?"
"At first Bob and Chuck were just having a mild argument, but Bob's friends egged them on until they started fighting."end up (1. no object): finally arrive at; arrive at an unexpected place.
"We got lost last night and ended up in the next town."end up (2. no object): arrive somewhere as a result or consequence.
"You're working too hard. If you don't take it easy, you'll end up in the hospital!"
Phrasal Verbs: F
face up to (inseparable): admit to; take responsibility for.
fall through (no object): not happen. (Note:describes something that was planned but didn't happen.)
fall through (no object): not happen. (Note:describes something that was planned but didn't happen.)
feel up to (inseparable): feel strong enough or comfortable enough to do something.
figure out (1. separable): logically find the answer to aproblem; solve a problem by thinking about it carefully.
figure out (2. separable): understand why someone behaves the way she/he does.
fill in (1. separable): add information to a form.
fill in (on) (2. separable): supply information that someone doesn't know.
fill in for (inseparable): temporarily do someone else's work; temporarily substitute for another person.
fill out (1. separable): complete a form by adding required information.
fill out (2. no object): become less thin; gain weight.
find out (about) (inseparable): learn / get information (about).
"You can't pretend that you're doing OK in this course, Joe. Sooner or later, you'll have to face up to the fact that you're failing it."
"We had originally intended to go to Mexico for our vacation, but our trip fell through when I got sick."
"We had originally intended to go to Mexico for our vacation, but our trip fell through when I got sick."
"I know the accident was a terrible shock. Do youfeel up to talking about it?"
"For a long time I couldn't understand the last problem, but I finally figured it out."
"I can't figure Margie out. Sometimes she's very warm and friendly and sometimes she acts as if she doesn't know me."
"The office needs to know your home address and phone number. Could you fill them in on this form?"
"I wasn't able to attend the meeting yesterday, but I understand that it was important. Could you fillme in? / Could you fill me in on what was discussed?"
"Professor Newton is in the hospital and won't be able to teach for the rest of the term. Do you know who's going to fill in for her?"
"Of course I completed my application! I filledit out and mailed it over three weeks ago!"
"Jerry used to be really skinny, but in the last year he's begun to fill out."
"I'm sorry that you didn't know the meeting had been canceled. I didn't find out (find out about it) myself until just a few minutes ago."
Phrasal Verbs: G
get across (separable): make something understood; communicate something understandably.
get along (with) (inseparable): have a friendly relationship (with); be friendly (toward).
get around (1. inseparable): avoid having to do something.
get around (2. no object): move from place to place.
get around to (inseparable): do something eventually.
get by (no object): survive, financially, in a difficult situation.
get in (1. inseparable): enter a small, closed vehicle.
get in (2. no object): arrive.
get on (inseparable): enter a large, closed vehicle.
get off (1. inseparable): leave a large, closed vehicle.
get off (2. separable): be excused (for a period of time) from work, class, or other regularly scheduled activities.
get off (3. separable): make it possible for someone toavoid punishment.
get out of (1. inseparable): leave a small, closed vehicle.
get out of (2. inseparable): escape having to do something.
get over (1. no object): finish. (Note: for individual activities, not ones that happen again and again.)
"Alan is really intelligent but sometimes he has problems getting his ideas across."
"Why can't you and your sister get along? Everyone else gets along with her just fine!"
"Teresa got around the required math classes by doing well on a math proficiency test."
"She doesn't have a car. She gets around by bicycle, bus, or taxi."
"I really should wash the dishes, but I don't feel like it. Maybe I'll get around to them tomorrow morning."
"It's going to be hard to pay the rent now that you've lost your job, but somehow we'll get by."
"I don't know where Carole was going. She just got in her car and drove away."
"Do you know what time Fred's plane gets in?"
"I'm sorry, but you're too late to say goodbye toAngela. She got on the plane about 20 minutes ago."
"When you get off the bus, cross the street, turn right on Oak Street, and keep going until you're at the corner of Oak and Lincoln Boulevard."
"Some schools got President's Day offbut ours didn't. We had classes as usual."
"Everyone knew he was guilty, but his lawyer was clever and got him off."
"There's something wrong with the garage door opener. You'll have to get out of the car and open it by hand."
"Lisa said she had a terrible headache and got out of giving her speech today."
"What time do your classes get over?"get over (2. inseparable): recover from an illness or painful experience.
"Katy was really upset when she failed the test. She thought she would never get over feeling so stupid."get rid of (1. inseparable): dispose of; give away or throw away.
"That shirt is really ugly. Why don't you getrid of it?"get rid of (2. inseparable): dismiss someone; fire someone from a job; cause someone to leave.
"The treasurer of the XYZ company was spending too much money so the company president got rid of him."get up (usually no object; with an object, separable): leave bed after sleeping and begin your daily activities.
"You'll have to get up much earlier than usualtomorrow. We have to leave by no later than 6:00 AM."give up (1. separable): stop doing something (usually a habit).
"I know I won't hear the alarm tomorrow morning. Can youget me up at 6:00 AM?"
"He knows smoking isn't good for his health, but he can't give it up."give up (2. no object): decide not to try (unsuccessfully)to solve a problem.
A: "What's black and white and red all over?"go out with (inseparable): have a date with.
B: "I give up. What?"
A: "An embarrassed zebra!"
"You went out with Sharon last night, didn't you?"go with (1. no object): look pleasing together. (Note: for clothes, furniture, etc.)
"You should buy that shirt. It will go wellwith your dark brown suit."go with (2. no object): date regularly and steadily.
"Is Gina going with Jim? I see them together all the time."goof off (no object): be lazy; do nothing in particular.
A: "Do you have any special plans for your vacation?"grow up (1. no object): spend the years between being a child and being an adult.
B: "No. I'm just going to stay home and goof off."
"Did you know that Frank grew up in Malaysia?"grow up (2. no object): behave responsibly; behave as an adult, not a child.
A: "Lee really irritates me sometimes. He's really silly and childish."
B: "I agree. I wish he would grow up."
Phrasal Verbs: H
hand in (separable): submit homework, an assignment, etc.
hand out (separable): distribute.
hang up (no object): end a phone conversation by replacing the receiver.
have to do with (inseparable): be about.
hold up (1. separable): raise; lift to a higher-than-normal position.
hold up (2. separable): delay.
hold up (3. separable): rob; threaten someone with harm unless he/she gives her/his money or other valuable things.
"You'd better get started on your report. You know that you have to hand it in at 8:30 tomorrow morning!"
"Why don't you have a course description and list of assignments? The teacher handed them out on the first day of class."
"I'd like to talk longer, but I'd better hang up. My sister needs to make a call."
"This class has to do with the behavior of people in groups."
"The winner of the race proudly held his trophyup for all to see."
"I'm sorry I'm late. There was an accident on the freeway and traffic held me up."
"Sarah is very upset. When she was walking home last night, two men held her up and took her purse and jewelry."
Phrasal Verbs: I
iron out (separable): mutually reach an agreement; mutually resolve difficulties
"Yes, I know we disagree on lots of things, Susan, but we can iron them out."
Phrasal Verbs: J
jack up (1. separable): raise / life by using a jack.
jack up (2. separable): raise (used for prices).
"We'll have to jack the back of the carup before we can change the tire."
"The car dealer bought my old Ford for $750 andjacked the price up to $1,500 when they sold it."jump all over (inseparable): severely scold someone; berate someone.
"Arthur is really upset. His boss jumped all over him because he's been late for work three times this week."
Phrasal Verbs: K
keep on (1. inseparable--followed by an -ing verb): continue
keep on (someone) (2. inseparable): continue to remind someone to do something until he/she does it (even if this irritates her/him).
kick out (separable): expel; force someone to leave because of his/her poor performance or unacceptable behavior.
knock out (separable): make unconscious.
knock oneself out (separable): work much harder than normal or than what is expected.
"I'm not ready to stop yet. I think I'll keep on working for a while."
"Bill's very forgetful. You'll have to keep onhim or he'll never do all the things you want him to do."
"Jim's club kicked him out because he didn't pay his dues or come to meetings."
"The boxing match ended when one boxer knockedthe other one out."
"That medicine really knocked me out. I slept for 14 hours straight!"
"We completed the project on timebecause of Chuck. Heknocked himself out to be sure we didn't miss the deadline."
Phrasal Verbs: L
lay off (separable): dismiss someone from a job because of lack of work or money (not because of poor performance)
leave out (separable): forget; omit.
let down (separable): disappoint.
let up (no object): become less intense or slower.
look back on (inseparable): remember; reflect on / consider something in the past.
look down on (inseparable): hold in contempt; regard as inferior.
look forward to (inseparable): anticipate pleasantly; think about a pleasant thing before it happens
look in on (inseparable): visit in order to check something's / someone's condition.
look into (inseparable): investigate / get more details about something.
look like (inseparable): resemble (in appearance).
look over (separable): check; review.
look up (1. separable): find something in a reference work.
look up (2. separable): find where someone lives or worksand visit him/her.
look up to (inseparable): respect.
luck out (no object): be unexpectedly lucky.
"I feel really sorry Sally's family. Her father waslaid off yesterday."
"Oh, no! When I made the list of those who attended the meeting, I left your name out!"
"I know I let you down when I didn't do what I promised. I'm really sorry."
"It's been raining hard for a long time. Will it everlet up?"
"When they looked back on their many years together, they realized that their marriage had been a very happyone."
"It's not surprising that Fred has few friends. He seems to look down on anyone who doesn't like the same things that he does."
"I'm really looking forward to vacation. I can't wait for it to begin!"
"My father just came home from the hospital. I plan tolook in on him today after I finish work."
"Someone said there was a meeting at 9:30 but I haven't heard anything about it. Shall I look intoit?"
"Does he look like his father or his mother?"
"I think I may have some typos in this report. Could you look it over?"
"I'm sorry, but I don't know what that word means. I'll have to look it up."
"Thanks for giving me your brother's address. When I'm in Chicago next month, I'll be sure to lookhim up."
"Everyone looks up to Joyce because she always makes time to help others."
"Gloria was worried because she wasn't prepared to give a report at the meeting, but she lucked out because the meeting was postponed."
Phrasal Verbs: M
make fun of (inseparable): make jokes about (usually unkindly).
make up (1. separable): invent / create (imaginary) information.
make up (2. separable): compensate for something missed or not done by doing extra or equivalent work.
make up (with) (3. inseparable): re-establish a friendly relationship by admitting guilt.
make out (separable): see / hear something well enough to understand what it means. (Note: often negative.)
make for (1. inseparable): go to or toward.
make for (2. inseparable): result in; cause.
mark up (separable): increase the price (for resale).
mark down (separable): reduce the price (as an incentive to buy).
mix up (separable): cause to become confused.
"I agree that Bob looks ridiculous since he shaved his head, but don't make fun of him. You'll hurt his feelings."
"Judy's story is hard to believe. I'm sure shemade it up."
"I'm sorry I missed the test. May I make itup?"
"Jack and his girlfriend were very angry with each other, but last night they finally made up."
"Jack and his girlfriend were very angry with each other, but last night they finally made up witheach other."
"Ruth's writing is very small. I almost need a magnify glass to make it out."
"What were the last two examples that he gave? I couldn'tmake them out."
"Her teen-aged children are always hungry. As soon as they arrive home from school, they make for the refrigerator."
"Many hands make for light work. (If many people work together, there's less work for everyone.)"
"Mrs. White's import shop is profitable because she buys things inexpensively and then marksthem up."
"These shoes were really a bargain! The storemarked them down by 40%!"
"I didn't complete the assignment because I didn't know how. The directions mixed me up."
Phrasal Verbs: N
nod off (no object): fall sleep (usually unintentionally).
"The speech was so boring that several people in the audience nodded off before it was finished."
Phrasal Verbs: P
pan out (no object): succeed; happen as expected (for plans). (Note: almost always negative when in statements.)
pass away (no object): die.
pass out (1. no object): faint; lose consciousness.
pass out (2. separable): distribute.
pick out (separable): choose; select.
pick up (1. separable): lift; take up.
pick up (2. separable): arrange to meet someone and give her/him a ride.
pick up (3. separable): get; buy.
pick up (4. separable): refresh; revitalize.
pick on (inseparable): bully; intentionally try to make someone upset.
pitch in (no object): help; join together to accomplish something.
pull over (no object): drive a vehicle to the side of the rode.
put away (separable): return something to the proper place.
put off (1. separable): postpone; delay; avoid
put on (1. separable): begin to wear; don.
put on (2. separable): try to make someone believe something that is ridiculous or untrue.
put (someone) out (separable): inconvenience someone.
put up (1. separable): return something to the proper place.
put up (2. separable): provide someone with a place tosleep.
put up with (inseparable): tolerate.
put back (separable): return something to the proper place.
"I'll be here next week after all. My trip to Chicago didn't pan out."
"I was very sorry to hear that your grandfatherpassed away."
"When Ella heard that she'd won a million dollars, she was so shocked that she passed out."
"Everyone in the room needs one of these information sheets. Who will help me pass them out?"
"Billy's grandmother especially liked her birthday card because Billy had picked it out himself."
"Those books don't belong on the floor. Will you help me pick them up?"
"Of course we can go there together. What time should I pick you up?"
"The children just drank the last of the milk. Could you pick some more up on your way home this evening?"
"He was feeling a little tired, so he drank a glass of orange juice. It picked him up enough to finish his work."
"You should be ashamed of teasing your little brother, Bob! Pick on someone your own size!"
"We'll be finished soon if everyone pitches in."
"When the policeman indicated that I should pull over, I knew he was going to give me a ticket."
"I just took these clothes out of the dryer. Will you help me put them away?"
"I can't put this work off any longer. If I don't do it soon, it'll be impossible to finish it in time."
"When will Mr. Smith agree to a meeting? I keep asking for an appointment, but he keeps puttingme off."
"It's a little bit chilly outside. You'd betterput a sweater on."
"Don't believe a word of what Jim was saying. He was just putting us on."
"I hate to put you out, but I need a ride to the train station and hope you can take me."
"Your toys are all over the floor, Timmy. Pleaseput them up."
"There's no need for you to check into a hotel. I'll be happy to put you up."
"It's really important to come to work on time. The boss won't put up with tardiness."
"I've finished with these books. Do you want me toput them back on the shelves?"
Phrasal Verbs: R
rip off (separable): cheat; take advantage of; charge too much.
round off (separable): change from a fraction to the nearest whole number.
run into (inseparable): meet by chance.
run out of (inseparable): use the last of.
"Don't even think about buying a car there. They'llrip you off."
"Round all prices off to the closest whole-dollar amounts. For example, round $33.73 off to $34.00."
"Yesterday at the supermarket, Jan ran into her former roommate. Before yesterday, they hadn't seen each other for nearly five years."
"On the way home from work, Art ran out ofgas."Phrasal Verbs: S
set up(separable): make arrangements for something.
set back (1. separable): cause a delay in scheduling.
set back (2. separable): cost.
slip up(no object): make a mistake.
stand out (no object): be noticeably better than other similar people or things.
stand up (1. no object): rise to a standing position.
stand up (2. separable): make a date but not keep it.
show up (1. no object): arrive; appear.
show up (2. separable): do a noticeably better job (often unexpectedly) than someone else.
stand for (1. no object): represent.
stand for (2. inseparable): tolerate; permit (usually negative).
"You'll see Mr. Thomas tomorrow. I've set a meeting up for 9:30 AM."
"We've had some problems with the project that have set us back at least two days . We'll give you a progress report tomorrow."
"I wonder how much Bill's new car set him back?"
"You slipped up here. The amount should be $135.28, not $132.58."
"Good job, Ann! Your work really stands out!"
"When the Chairperson entered the room, everyone stood up."
"Angela was supposed to go to the dance with Fred, but she stood him up and went with Chuck instead."
"The boss was very upset when you didn't show up for the meeting. What happened?"
"Everyone thought Marsha would win, but Jean did. Actually, Jean really showed Marsha up."
"These letters seem to be an abbreviation. Do you know what they stand for?"
"I'm not surprised that Mrs. Johnson rejected your report. She won't stand for shoddy work."
Phrasal Verbs: T
take after (inseparable): resemble; favor (in appearance).
take / bring back (separable): return.
take care of (1. inseparable): provide care for; watch one's health.
take care of (2. ineparable): make arrangements (forsomething to happen); take responsibility for.
take off (1. separable): remove (something you're wearing).
take off (2. no object): leave; depart (often suddenly or quickly).
take off (3. separable): make arrangements to be absent from work.
take up (separable): begin (a hobby or leisure-time activity).
tell (someone) off (separable): speak to someone bluntly and negatively, saying exactly what she/he did wrong.
tick off (1. separable): irritate someone; make someone upset or angry.
tick off (2. separable): show that something has been completed by putting a tick (check) beside it.
throw away (separable): discard; put in the garbage.
throw out (1. separable): discard; put in the garbage.
throw out (2. separable): forcibly make someone leave (usually because of bad behavior).
throw up (usually no object; with an object, separable): vomit.
try on (separable): wear something briefly to check its fit, how it looks, etc.
try out (separable): use a machine briefly to determine how well it works.
try out (for) (inseparable): try to win a place on a team or other organization.
turn around (1. usually no object): move so that you are facing the opposite direction.
turn around (2. separable): move so that someone / something is facing the opposite direction.
turn around (3. separable): make changes so that something that was unprofitable is profitable.
turn down (1. separable): decrease the volume.
turn down (2. separable): refuse.
turn in (1. separable): give / deliver / submit to someone.
turn in (2. no object): go to bed.
turn in (3. separable): report or deliver wrongdoers to the authorities.
turn off (1. separable): stop by turning a handle or switch.
turn off (2. separable): bore; repel (very informal).
turn on (1. separable): start by turning a handle or switch.
turn on (2. separable): interest very much; excite (very informal).
turn up (1. separable): increase the volume.
turn up (2. no object): appear unexpectedly.
Note: used for people."Both my sister and I take after our father."
"This book is due tomorrow. I guess I shouldtake it back to the library."
"Yes, you can borrow my pen, but don't forget to bring itback to me when you're finished."
"Lois has been taking care of her father since he returned home from the hospital."
"You've been working too hard lately. You'd better take care of yourself!"
"Will you take care of making reservations forour flight to Boston?"
"Please take your hat off when you go inside a building."
"Was something wrong with Jill? She took offwithout saying goodbye."
"When does your plane take off?"
"Susan isn't here today. She's taking today and tomorrow off."
A: "Do you like to ski?"
B: "I've never been skiing, but I think I'd like to take itup."
"Julie was really angry at Bob; she told himoff in front of all of us."
"It really ticks her off when someone is late for an appointment."
"Here are the things you need to do. Tick each one off when you finish it."
"You shouldn't throw those newspapersaway; they're recyclable."
"This food smells bad. You'd better throw itout."
"Those people are drunk and making everyone uncomfortable. The manager should throw themout."
"Paul was so nervous about his job interview that hethrew up just before he left for it."
"I'm not sure that jacket is large enough. May Itry it on?"
"I really like the way this car looks. May Itry it out?"
"I know you want to be on the football team. Are you going to try out?"
"If you like to sing, you should try out for the choir.
"Everyone turned around and stared when I entered the meeting late."
"I don't want this chair facing the window. Will you help me turn it around?"
"The company was doing poorly until it hired a new president. He turned it around in about six months and now it's doing quite well."
"Your music is giving me a headache! Pleaseturn it down or use your headphones!"
"I thought I could borrow some money from Joe, but when I asked, he turned me down."
"I've written my report, but I haven't turnedit in."
"I'm pretty tired. I guess I'll turn in."
"Two days after the robbery, the thieves turnedthemselves in."
"I'm cold. Do you mind if I turn the air conditioner off?"
"That music turns me off. Please play something else!"
"It's cold in here. I'm going to turn the heater on"
"What kind of music turns you on?"
"I can barely hear the TV. Can you turn itup a little?"
"We were all surprised when Pam turned up at the party. We didn't even know she was in town."
Phrasal Verbs: W
wait on (1. inseparable): serve (usually customers in a restaurant, shop, etc.)
wait for (inseparable): wait until someone / something arrives or is finished with something else.
wake up (1. no object): stop sleeping.
wake up (2. separable): rouse someone; cause someone to stop sleeping.
"I want to make a complaint. The person who justwaited on me was very impolite."
"When will Kenny be finished with work? I've beenwaiting for him for almost an hour!"
"I'm tired of waiting for the bus. I guess I'll take a taxi instead."
"I usually wake up around 5:00 AM each day."
"I have an important meeting tomorrow and I'm afraid I won't hear my alarm. Will you wake me upat 6:00 AM?"watch out for (inseparable): be careful of; beware of.
"There's a school at the end of this block.Watch out for children crossing the street."wear out (1. separable): wear something / use something until it can no longer be worn / be used.
"If you take that road, watch out for ice during the winter."
"I need a new pencil sharpener. I wore this oneout."wear out (2. separable): cause to become exhausted; cause to become very tired.
"I suppose I should get some new shoes. I've almost wornthis pair out."
"I had four different meetings today. They woreme out."work out (1. no object): exercise (usually in a gym, etc.) to build muscles, body tone, etc.
"I suppose I should get some new shoes. I've almost wornthis pair out."
"Instead of eating lunch on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, Sheila goes to the recreation center to work out."work out (2. separable): solve a problem / resolve a difficult situation (usually by working together).
"I know we disagree on many points, but I believe we can work things out."wrap up (1. no object): wear enough clothes to keep warm.
"It's really cold today. Be sure you wrap upwhen you leave the house."wrap up (2. separable): finish something; bring something to a conclusion.
"We've been talking about the problem for nearly three hours.write down (separable): record something in writing.
I hope we'll be able to wrap the discussion up soon."
"Could you tell me your e-mail address again? I want to write it down."write up (separable): record; report in writing.
"You'll need to make a report on your business meetings. Be sure you write them up as soon as possibleafter you return from your trip."
Phrasal Verbs: Z
zonk out (no object): fall asleep quickly because of exhaustion.
"I intended to go shopping after work, but I was so tired that I zonked out as soon as I got home."
Phrasal Verbs List
Phrasal verbs are usually two-word phrases consisting of verb + adverb or verb + preposition. Think of them as you would any other English vocabulary. Study them as you come across them, rather than trying to memorize many at once. Use the list below as a reference guide when you find an expression that you don't recognize. The examples will help you understand the meanings. If you think of each phrasal verb as a separate verb with a specific meaning, you will be able to remember it more easily. Like many other verbs, phrasal verbs often have more than one meaning.
As well as learning their meanings, you need to learn how to use phrasal verbs properly. Some phrasal verbs require a direct object (someone/something), while others do not. Some phrasal verbs can be separated by the object, while others cannot. Review this phrasal verbs grammar from time to time so that you don't forget the rules!
|ask someone out||invite on a date||Brian asked Judy out to dinner and a movie.|
|ask around||ask many people the same question||I asked around but nobody has seen my wallet.|
|add up to something||equal||Your purchases add up to $205.32.|
|back something up||reverse||You'll have to back up your car so that I can get out.|
|back someone up||support||My wife backed me up over my decision to quit my job.|
|blow up||explode||The racing car blew up after it crashed into the fence.|
|blow something up||add air||We have to blow 50 balloons up for the party.|
|break down||stop functioning (vehicle, machine)||Our car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm.|
|break down||get upset||The woman broke down when the police told her that her son had died.|
|break something down||divide into smaller parts||Our teacher broke the final project down into three separate parts.|
|break in||force entry to a building||Somebody broke in last night and stole our stereo.|
|break into something||enter forcibly||The firemen had to break into the room to rescue the children.|
|break something in||wear something a few times so that it doesn't look/feel new||I need to break these shoes in before we run next week.|
|break in||interrupt||The TV station broke in to report the news of the president's death.|
|break up||end a relationship||My boyfriend and I broke up before I moved to America.|
|break up||start laughing (informal)||The kids just broke up as soon as the clown started talking.|
|break out||escape||The prisoners broke out of jail when the guards weren't looking.|
|break out in something||develop a skin condition||I broke out in a rash after our camping trip.|
|bring someone down||make unhappy||This sad music is bringing me down.|
|bring someone up||raise a child||My grandparents brought me up after my parents died.|
|bring something up||start talking about a subject||My mother walks out of the room when my father brings up sports.|
|bring something up||vomit||He drank so much that he brought his dinner up in the toilet.|
|call around||phone many different places/people||We called around but we weren't able to find the car part we needed.|
|call someone back||return a phone call||I called the company back but the offices were closed for the weekend.|
|call something off||cancel||Jason called the wedding off because he wasn't in love with his fiancé.|
|call on someone||ask for an answer or opinion||The professor called on me for question 1.|
|call on someone||visit someone||We called on you last night but you weren't home.|
|call someone up||phone||Give me your phone number and I will call you up when we are in town.|
|calm down||relax after being angry||You are still mad. You need to calm down before you drive the car.|
|not care for someone/something||not like (formal)||I don't care for his behaviour.|
|catch up||get to the same point as someone else||You'll have to run faster than that if you want to catch up with Marty.|
|check in||arrive and register at a hotel or airport||We will get the hotel keys when we check in.|
|check out||leave a hotel||You have to check out of the hotel before 11:00 AM.|
|check someone/something out||look at carefully, investigate||The company checks out all new employees.|
|check out someone/something||look at (informal)||Check out the crazy hair on that guy!|
|cheer up||become happier||She cheered up when she heard the good news.|
|cheer someone up||make happier||I brought you some flowers to cheer you up.|
|chip in||help||If everyone chips in we can get the kitchen painted by noon.|
|clean something up||tidy, clean||Please clean up your bedroom before you go outside.|
|come across something||find unexpectedly||I came across these old photos when I was tidying the closet.|
|come apart||separate||The top and bottom come apart if you pull hard enough.|
|come down with something||become sick||My nephew came down with chicken pox this weekend.|
|come forward||volunteer for a task or to give evidence||The woman came forward with her husband's finger prints.|
|come from somewhere||originate in||The art of origami comes from Asia.|
|count on someone/something||rely on||I am counting on you to make dinner while I am out.|
|cross something out||draw a line through||Please cross out your old address and write your new one.|
|cut back on something||consume less||My doctor wants me to cut back on sweets and fatty foods.|
|cut something down||make something fall to the ground||We had to cut the old tree in our yard down after the storm.|
|cut in||interrupt||Your father cut in while I was dancing with your uncle.|
|cut in||pull in too closely in front of another vehicle||The bus driver got angry when that car cut in.|
|cut in||start operating (of an engine or electrical device)||The air conditioner cuts in when the temperature gets to 22°C.|
|cut something off||remove with something sharp||The doctors cut off his leg because it was severely injured.|
|cut something off||stop providing||The phone company cut off our phone because we didn't pay the bill.|
|cut someone off||take out of a will||My grandparents cut my father off when he remarried.|
|cut something out||remove part of something (usually with scissors and paper)||I cut this ad out of the newspaper.|
|do someone/something over||beat up, ransack (Br.E., informal)||He's lucky to be alive. His shop was done over by a street gang.|
|do something over||do again (N.Amer.)||My teacher wants me to do my essay over because she doesn't like my topic.|
|do away with something||discard||It's time to do away with all of these old tax records.|
|do something up||fasten, close||Do your coat up before you go outside. It's snowing!|
|dress up||wear nice clothing||It's a fancy restaurant so we have to dress up.|
|drop back||move back in a position/group||Andrea dropped back to third place when she fell off her bike.|
|drop in/by/over||come without an appointment||I might drop in/by/over for tea sometime this week.|
|drop someone/something off||take someone/something somewhere and leave them/it there||I have to drop my sister off at work before I come over.|
|drop out||quit a class, school etc||I dropped out of Science because it was too difficult.|
|eat out||eat at a restaurant||I don't feel like cooking tonight. Let's eat out.|
|end up||eventually reach/do/decide||We ended up renting a movie instead of going to the theatre.|
|fall apart||break into pieces||My new dress fell apart in the washing machine.|
|fall down||fall to the ground||The picture that you hung up last night fell down this morning.|
|fall out||separate from an interior||The money must have fallen out of my pocket.|
|fall out||(of hair, teeth) become loose and unattached||His hair started to fall out when he was only 35.|
|figure something out||understand, find the answer||I need to figure out how to fit the piano and the bookshelf in this room.|
|fill something in||to write information in blanks (Br.E.)||Please fill in the form with your name, address, and phone number.|
|fill something out||to write information in blanks (N.Amer.)||The form must be filled out in capital letters.|
|fill something up||fill to the top||I always fill the water jug up when it is empty.|
|find out||discover||We don't know where he lives. How can we find out?|
|find something out||discover||We tried to keep the time of the party a secret, but Samantha found it out.|
|get something across/over||communicate, make understandable||I tried to get my point across/over to the judge but she wouldn't listen.|
|get along/on||like each other||I was surprised how well my new girlfriend and my sister got along/on.|
|get around||have mobility||My grandfather can get around fine in his new wheelchair.|
|get away||go on a vacation||We worked so hard this year that we had to get away for a week.|
|get away with something||do without being noticed or punished||Jason always gets away with cheating in his maths tests.|
|get back||return||We got back from our vacation last week.|
|get something back||receive something you had before||Liz finally got her Science notes back from my room-mate.|
|get back at someone||retaliate, take revenge||My sister got back at me for stealing her shoes. She stole my favourite hat.|
|get back into something||become interested in something again||I finally got back into my novel and finished it.|
|get on something||step onto a vehicle||We're going to freeze out here if you don't let us get on the bus.|
|get over something||recover from an illness, loss, difficulty||I just got over the flu and now my sister has it.|
|get over something||overcome a problem||The company will have to close if it can't get over the new regulations.|
|get round to something||finally find time to do (N.Amer.: get around to something)||I don't know when I am going to get round to writing the thank you cards.|
|get together||meet (usually for social reasons)||Let's get together for a BBQ this weekend.|
|get up||get out of bed||I got up early today to study for my exam.|
|get up||stand||You should get up and give the elderly man your seat.|
|give someone away||reveal hidden information about someone||His wife gave him away to the police.|
|give someone away||take the bride to the altar||My father gave me away at my wedding.|
|give something away||ruin a secret||My little sister gave the surprise party away by accident.|
|give something away||give something to someone for free||The library was giving away old books on Friday.|
|give something back||return a borrowed item||I have to give these skates back to Franz before his hockey game.|
|give in||reluctantly stop fighting or arguing||My boyfriend didn't want to go to the ballet, but he finally gave in.|
|give something out||give to many people (usually at no cost)||They were giving out free perfume samples at the department store.|
|give something up||quit a habit||I am giving up smoking as of January 1st.|
|give up||stop trying||My maths homework was too difficult so I gave up.|
|go after someone||follow someone||My brother tried to go after the thief in his car.|
|go after something||try to achieve something||I went after my dream and now I am a published writer.|
|go against someone||compete, oppose||We are going against the best soccer team in the city tonight.|
|go ahead||start, proceed||Please go ahead and eat before the food gets cold.|
|go back||return to a place||I have to go back home and get my lunch.|
|go out||leave home to go on a social event||We're going out for dinner tonight.|
|go out with someone||date||Jesse has been going out with Luke since they met last winter.|
|go over something||review||Please go over your answers before you submit your test.|
|go over||visit someone nearby||I haven't seen Tina for a long time. I think I'll go over for an hour or two.|
|go without something||suffer lack or deprivation||When I was young, we went without winter boots.|
|grow apart||stop being friends over time||My best friend and I grew apart after she changed schools.|
|grow back||regrow||My roses grew back this summer.|
|grow up||become an adult||When Jack grows up he wants to be a fireman.|
|grow out of something||get too big for||Elizabeth needs a new pair of shoes because she has grown out of her old ones.|
|grow into something||grow big enough to fit||This bike is too big for him now, but he should grow into it by next year.|
|hand something down||give something used to someone else||I handed my old comic books down to my little cousin.|
|hand something in||submit||I have to hand in my essay by Friday.|
|hand something out||to distribute to a group of people||We will hand out the invitations at the door.|
|hand something over||give (usually unwillingly)||The police asked the man to hand over his wallet and his weapons.|
|hang in||stay positive (N.Amer., informal)||Hang in there. I'm sure you'll find a job very soon.|
|hang on||wait a short time (informal)||Hang on while I grab my coat and shoes!|
|hang out||spend time relaxing (informal)||Instead of going to the party we are just going to hang out at my place.|
|hang up||end a phone call||He didn't say goodbye before he hung up.|
|hold someone/something back||prevent from doing/going||I had to hold my dog back because there was a cat in the park.|
|hold something back||hide an emotion||Jamie held back his tears at his grandfather's funeral.|
|hold on||wait a short time||Please hold on while I transfer you to the Sales Department.|
|hold onto someone/something||hold firmly using your hands or arms||Hold onto your hat because it's very windy outside.|
|hold someone/somethingup||rob||A man in a black mask held the bank up this morning.|
|keep on doing something||continue doing||Keep on stirring until the liquid comes to a boil.|
|keep something from someone||not tell||We kept our relationship from our parents for two years.|
|keep someone/something out||stop from entering||Try to keep the wet dog out of the living room.|
|keep something up||continue at the same rate||If you keep those results up you will get into a great college.|
|let someone down||fail to support or help, disappoint||I need you to be on time. Don't let me down this time.|
|let someone in||allow to enter||Can you let the cat in before you go to school?|
|look after someone/something||take care of||I have to look after my sick grandmother.|
|look down on someone||think less of, consider inferior||Ever since we stole that chocolate bar your dad has looked down on me.|
|look for someone/something||try to find||I'm looking for a red dress for the wedding.|
|look forward to something||be excited about the future||I'm looking forward to the Christmas break.|
|look into something||investigate||We are going to look into the price of snowboards today.|
|look out||be careful, vigilant, and take notice||Look out! That car's going to hit you!|
|look out for someone/something||be especially vigilant for||Don't forget to look out for snakes on the hiking trail.|
|look something over||check, examine||Can you look over my essay for spelling mistakes?|
|look something up||search and find information in a reference book or database||We can look her phone number up on the Internet.|
|look up to someone||have a lot of respect for||My little sister has always looked up to me.|
|make something up||invent, lie about something||Josie made up a story about why we were late.|
|make up||forgive each other||We were angry last night, but we made up at breakfast.|
|make someone up||apply cosmetics to||My sisters made me up for my graduation party.|
|mix something up||confuse two or more things||I mixed up the twins' names again!|
|pass away||die||His uncle passed away last night after a long illness.|
|pass out||faint||It was so hot in the church that an elderly lady passed out.|
|pass something out||give the same thing to many people||The professor passed the textbooks out before class.|
|pass something up||decline (usually something good)||I passed up the job because I am afraid of change.|
|pay someone back||return owed money||Thanks for buying my ticket. I'll pay you back on Friday.|
|pay for something||be punished for doing something bad||That bully will pay for being mean to my little brother.|
|pick something out||choose||I picked out three sweaters for you to try on.|
|point someone/something out||indicate with your finger||I'll point my boyfriend out when he runs by.|
|put something down||put what you are holding on a surface or floor||You can put the groceries down on the kitchen counter.|
|put someone down||insult, make someone feel stupid||The students put the substitute teacher down because his pants were too short.|
|put something off||postpone||We are putting off our trip until January because of the hurricane.|
|put something out||extinguish||The neighbours put the fire out before the firemen arrived.|
|put something together||assemble||I have to put the crib together before the baby arrives.|
|put up with someone/something||tolerate||I don't think I can put up with three small children in the car.|
|put something on||put clothing/accessories on your body||Don't forget to put on your new earrings for the party.|
|run into someone/something||meet unexpectedly||I ran into an old school-friend at the mall.|
|run over someone/something||drive a vehicle over a person or thing||I accidentally ran over your bicycle in the driveway.|
|run over/through something||rehearse, review||Let's run over/through these lines one more time before the show.|
|run away||leave unexpectedly, escape||The child ran away from home and has been missing for three days.|
|run out||have none left||We ran out of shampoo so I had to wash my hair with soap.|
|send something back||return (usually by mail)||My letter got sent back to me because I used the wrong stamp.|
|set something up||arrange, organize||Our boss set a meeting up with the president of the company.|
|set someone up||trick, trap||The police set up the car thief by using a hidden camera.|
|shop around||compare prices||I want to shop around a little before I decide on these boots.|
|show off||act extra special for people watching (usually boastfully)||He always shows off on his skateboard|
|sleep over||stay somewhere for the night (informal)||You should sleep over tonight if the weather is too bad to drive home.|
|sort something out||organize, resolve a problem||We need to sort the bills out before the first of the month.|
|stick to something||continue doing something, limit yourself to one particular thing||You will lose weight if you stick to the diet.|
|switch something off||stop the energy flow, turn off||The light's too bright. Could you switch it off.|
|switch something on||start the energy flow, turn on||We heard the news as soon as we switched on the car radio.|
|take after someone||resemble a family member||I take after my mother. We are both impatient.|
|take something apart||purposely break into pieces||He took the car brakes apart and found the problem.|
|take something back||return an item||I have to take our new TV back because it doesn't work.|
|take off||start to fly||My plane takes off in five minutes.|
|take something off||remove something (usually clothing)||Take off your socks and shoes and come in the lake!|
|take something out||remove from a place or thing||Can you take the garbage out to the street for me?|
|take someone out||pay for someone to go somewhere with you||My grandparents took us out for dinner and a movie.|
|tear something up||rip into pieces||I tore up my ex-boyfriend's letters and gave them back to him.|
|think back||remember (often + to, sometimes + on)||When I think back on my youth, I wish I had studied harder.|
|think something over||consider||I'll have to think this job offer over before I make my final decision.|
|throw something away||dispose of||We threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery.|
|turn something down||decrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc)||Please turn the TV down while the guests are here.|
|turn something down||refuse||I turned the job down because I don't want to move.|
|turn something off||stop the energy flow, switch off||Your mother wants you to turn the TV off and come for dinner.|
|turn something on||start the energy, switch on||It's too dark in here. Let's turn some lights on.|
|turn something up||increase the volume or strength (heat, light etc)||Can you turn the music up? This is my favourite song.|
|turn up||appear suddenly||Our cat turned up after we put posters up all over the neighbourhood.|
|try something on||sample clothing||I'm going to try these jeans on, but I don't think they will fit.|
|try something out||test||I am going to try this new brand of detergent out.|
|use something up||finish the supply||The kids used all of the toothpaste up so we need to buy some more.|
|wake up||stop sleeping||We have to wake up early for work on Monday.|
|warm someone/something up||increase the temperature||You can warm your feet up in front of the fireplace.|
|warm up||prepare body for exercise||I always warm up by doing sit-ups before I go for a run.|
|wear off||fade away||Most of my make-up wore off before I got to the party.|
|work out||exercise||I work out at the gym three times a week.|
|work out||be successful||Our plan worked out fine.|
|work something out||make a calculation||We have to work out the total cost before we buy the house.|